2022 Bar Exam

Political Law

Follows Bar Exam Syllabus.
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1 - Basic Concepts...

2 - General Principles

A. Definition, characteristics and purpose of taxation
B. Power of taxation as distinguished from police power and eminent domain
C. Scope and limitations of taxation
D. Requisites of a valid tax
E. Tax as distinguished from other forms of exactions
F. Kinds of taxes
G. Doctrines in taxation

10 - Administrative Law

A. General principles
B. Powers of administrative agencies
C. Doctrines of primary jurisdiction and exhaustion of administrative remedies

11 - Election Law

A. Suffrage
B. Candidacy
C. Campaign
D. Remedies and jurisdiction

12 - Local Governments

A. Principles of local autonomy
B. Autonomous regions and their relation to the national government
C. Local government units
D. Local Taxation

13 - National Economy...

A. Regalian doctrine
B. Exploration, development and utilization of natural resources C. Franchises, Authority and Certificates for Public Utilities D. Acquisition, Ownership and Transfer of Public and Private Lands
E. Practice of Professions
F. Organization and Regulation of Corporations, Private and Public
G. Monopolies, Restraint of Trade and Unfair Competition

14 - Social Justice...

A. Concept of social justice
B. Economic, social, and cultural rights
C. Commission on Human Rights

15 - Amendments or Revisions...

Procedure to amend or revise the Constitution

16 - Education, Science...

A. Academic freedom
B. Constitutional tax exemptions for certain educational

17 - Public International Law

A. Concepts
B. Relationship between international and national law
C. Sources of obligations in international law
D. Subjects
E. Requisites of Statehood
F. Jurisdiction of states
F. General principles of treaty law
G. Doctrine of state responsibility
H. Refugees
I. Extradition
J. Basic principles of International Human Rights Law
K. Basic principles of International Humanitarian Law
L. Law of the sea
M. Basic principles of International Environmental Law

Political Law

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