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1. Judgments, final orders, and entry of judgments


1) Rendition of judgments and final orders

A judgment or final order determining the merits of the case shall be in writing personally and directly prepared by the judge, stating clearly and distinctly the facts and the law on which it is based, signed by him, and filed with the clerk of the court. (Section 1, Rule 36, Rules of Court)

2) Entry of judgments and final orders

If no appeal or motion for new trial or reconsideration is filed within the time provided in these Rules, the judgment or final order shall forthwith be entered by the clerk in the book of entries of judgments. The date of finality of the judgment or final order shall be deemed to be the date of its entry. The record shall contain the dispositive part of the judgment or final order and shall be signed by the clerk, within a certificate that such judgment or final order has become final and executory. (Section 2, Rule 36, Ibid.)

3) Judgment for or against one or more of several parties

Judgment may be given for or against one or more of several plaintiffs and for or against one or more of several defendants. When justice so demands, the court may require the parties on each side to file adversary pleadings as between themselves and determine their ultimate rights and obligations. (Section 3, Rule 36, Ibid.)

4) Several judgments

In an action against several defendants, the court may, when a several judgment is proper, render judgment against one or more of them, leaving the action to proceed against the others. (Section 4, Rule 36, Ibid.)

5) Separate judgments

When more than one claim for relief is presented in an action, the court, at any stage, upon a determination of the issues material to a particular claim and all counterclaims arising out of the transaction or occurrence which is the subject matter of the claim, may render a separate judgment disposing of such claim. The judgment shall terminate the action with respect to the claim so disposed of and the action shall proceed as to the remaining claims. In case a separate judgment is rendered the court by order may stay its enforcement until the rendition of a subsequent judgment or judgments and may prescribe such conditions as may be necessary to secure the benefit thereof to the party in whose favor the judgment is rendered. (Section 5, Rule 36, Ibid.)

6) Judgment against entity without juridical personality

When judgment is rendered against two or more persons sued as an entity without juridical personality, the judgment shall set out their individual or proper names, if known. (Section 6, Rule 36, Ibid.)

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